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Gynaecologic Cancer Treatment

The Gynaecologic Cancer Program at Yashoda Cancer Institute provides primary gynaecological oncology services to women diagnosed with or suspected to have gynaecological cancer with the goal of delivering the most advanced therapies while focusing on improving their quality of life.

Our gynecologic cancer program offers treatment to patients suffering from ovarian, cervical, endometrial, and other cancers of the reproductive system, unique access to advanced surgical techniques, and the latest treatment modalities, including robotic surgeries and HIPEC.

We have a team of dedicated Gynae-Onco Surgeons who perform radical surgeries for all gynecological cancers, including:

  • Radical hysterectomy with nodal dissection
  • Staging surgery for Ca Endometrium with sentinel lymph node mapping
  • Surgical cytoreduction for advanced ovarian cancer including peritonectomy, bowel resection and anastomosis, ileostomy /colostomy, hepatectomy, splenectomy, distal gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy
  • Exenteration surgeries for recurrent gynaecological cancers
  • Radical vulvectomy with inguinofemoral lymph node dissection
  • Radical vaginectomy
  • Vulval/vaginal plastic reconstruction using flaps

Our team has extensive expertise in managing even the most complicated cases.

Also, our services include:

  • Analysis of suspicious pelvic masses with intra-operative frozen section
  • Cervical Cancer Screening and Immunization
  • Screening of Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer in high-risk women

What Is Gynaecologic Cancer?

Gynaecologic Cancer is cancer that begins from the reproductive organs of a woman. It refers to the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the reproductive organs. There are several types of gynaecological cancers named after the location where they begin and include the following:

  • Cervical cancer
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Primary Peritoneal cancer
  • Fallopian tube cancer
  • Vaginal cancer
  • Vulvar cancer
  • Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasias

What Are The Symptoms of Gynaecologic Cancers ?

Symptoms of gynaecologic cancer depend on the site of the tumour and include either any one of the following or a constellation of below-mentioned complaints:

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Inter-menstrual bleeding (bleeding between two periods)
  • Vaginal bleeding or spotting after menopause
  • Foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Urinary symptoms (haematuria, urgency or frequency)
  • Rectal symptoms (diarrhea or constipation, bleeding per rectum)
  • Persistent pelvic pain or pressure
  • Abdominal distension
  • Feeling of lump in abdomen
  • Bloating
  • Feeling full quickly
  • Loss of appetite
  • Persistent itching over vulva
  • Change in the color of vulval skin
  • Appearance of sore, wart or an ulcerated lesion
  • Enlarged groin lymph nodes

What Are The Different Stages Of Gynaecologic Cancer?

As with all other cancers of the body, gynaecological cancers also have four stages.

  • Stage I
  • Stage II
  • Stage III
  • Stage IV

All gynecological cancers are surgically staged, which means that a stage to which cancer belongs can only be determined after histopathological examination of the surgical specimens. Thus thorough surgical staging with complete tumor removal is the key to increase the chances of survival. It is imperative to emphasize that trained gynae onco surgeons should treat all patients with gynaecological cancers.

How is Gynaecologic Cancer Diagnosed?

Gynaecological Cancers can be diagnosed by a combination of :

  • Physical examination
  • Gynaecological examination
  • Biopsy
  • Certain blood tests (tumor markers)
  • Imaging studies include transvaginal ultrasound, abdominal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), or abdominal Computed Tomography (CT)
  • Whole-body PET CT if indicated

What Are The Treatments For Gynaecologic Cancers?

Treating gynaecological cancers requires a multi-modality approach and involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

  • Surgery: It is the mainstay of treatment for most gynaecological cancers, particularly in the early stages of the disease, when the cancer cells have not spread to other organs. Even in the advanced stages of disease, the surgical goal of removing all grossly visible tumor tissue should be met to achieve survival advantage.

Depending on the biopsy report of the surgical specimens, the gynae onco-surgeon decides whether any further treatment is required or not in the form of either radiation therapy or chemotherapy or both.

  • Radiation therapy: Involves the use of ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells. The therapy kills the cancers cell in the localized area.
  • Chemotherapy: To kill cancer cell, anti-cancer medicines are used

What Are The Precautions To Prevent the Risk of Gynaecologic Cancers?

  • All women between 21-65 years must undergo frequent screening with cervical cytology (Pap smear)
  • Avoid promiscuous sexual behavior
  • Adopt safe sex practices (use of a barrier)
  • Consult a doctor for HPV vaccination
  • Exercise regularly to maintain a healthy body weight since obesity is a risk factor for some gynae cancers
  • Avoid smoking
  • Consume alcohol in moderation
  • Do not hesitate to approach medical help if you experience any untoward or new onset of symptoms

Are There Any Risk Factors Involved?

Some of the factors that may lead to Gynaecological Cancers include:

  • Persistent Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection
  • Age: With an advancing age, there is a risk of developing cancer.
  • Obesity
  • Family history: Women with a family history of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or colorectal cancer are at an enhanced risk of developing gynecological cancers
  • Personal history of breast cancer: You are at high risk of developing Gynecologic Cancer If you have undergone breast cancer treatment.
  • Smoking: Women who smoke are twice as likely to get cervical cancer as women who do not smoke, as smoking makes the immune system less effective in fighting HPV infections
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: History of (STD’s) increase the risk of cervical cancer
  • Sexual activity at an early age: Women who get involved in sexual activity at an early age (less than 16 years) are at considerable risk of developing cervical cancer
  • Multiple sexual partners: Having sex with multiple partners increases your risk of cervical cancer
  • Genetic Disorder: A genetic syndrome called hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) or Genetic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene increases the risk of Gynaecologic Cancers

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