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Pathalogy

We understand that a comprehensive assessment of pathologic changes is essential to preclinical and clinical studies for ensuring safety, efficacy, and mechanism of action for novel therapeutic agents. Yashoda hospital features experts with multidisciplinary expertise in all types of biologics chemicals, drugs, and devices, providing several routines and specialized pathology services.

Our Department of Pathology at Yashoda Hospital is a committed department created to include all the subspecialties of laboratory medicine: Clinical Biochemistry, Haematology & Immunohaematology, Histopathology and Cytopathology, Clinical Microbiology, and Molecular Biology. We provide complete support, expertise, and consultation services that facilitate clinical care in the hospital.

We use cutting edge technologies such as Surgical pathology, Oncopathology, Cytopathology, including Conventional Pap Smear, Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Liquid Based Cervical Cytology, HPV- Immunohistochemistry, DNA Testing, Immunofluorescence for kidney and skin diseases.

Our Department

Our Department of Pathology has the latest technologies and services featuring all aspects of the laboratory, ranging from pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases. We continuously update our technology and equipment’s to deliver accurate and reproducible results in the quickest possible turnaround time.

Our department offers diagnostic services, which are seamlessly integrated with the hospital information system so that laboratory reports could be accessed by an authorized person from any remote location in the hospital.

To save time, money, and efforts of our patients, we offer the facility of downloading the outpatient laboratory reports with real-time online access.

Our Technology

We are proud of the fact that our Department of Pathology are equipped with state-of-the-art facilities and cutting edge technology encompassing all the phases of the laboratory system

  • Pre-Analytical Phase
  • Analytical Phase
  • Post Analytical Phase

Comprehensive Units At The Department:

Our Department of Pathology has laboratories that provide the highest quality services and ensures exceptional accuracy and reliability of each test result. We have several specialties in our pathology departments that cater to different patient health care.

  • Haematology
  • Biochemistry
  • Cytopathology
  • Histopathology
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Clinical Microbiology

Haematology

For a comprehensive diagnosis of hematological disorders, we have a dedicated laboratory offering routine laboratory tests at our state-of-art haematology unit. Our laboratory offers specialized facilities for the study of haemolytic, haemostatic, and oncologic disorders.

Advanced State-of-the-Art Equipment

Our clinical haematology department possesses the latest and high-tech equipment that provides instant and accurate results. Some of the technologies we have are:

  • Coagulation Analyzer / Microcoagulation System
  • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Analyzer / ESR (Sed Rate) Analyzers
  • HbA1c Analyzer / Hemoglobin Analyzer
  • Hematology Analyzers
  • Hemostasis Analyzer
  • Plasma Protein Analyzers

What is Hematology?

Hematology is the study of blood disorders and blood. We have highly trained haematologists and hematopathologists that have specialization in diseases of the blood and blood components. These are bone and bone marrow cells. Our haematological tests can aid and help in diagnosing infection, hemophilia, anemia, blood-clotting disorders, and leukemia.

Services offered at the unit

  • Our lab diagnoses acid and alkaline electrophoresis, hemoglobinopathies, and haemoglobin HPLC.
  • Bone marrow, blood, and lymphomas flow cytometry

Our Clinical Hematology Tests Include:

Complete blood count (CBC), which includes:

  • White blood cell count (WBC)
  • Red blood cell count (RBC)
  • Platelet count
  • Hematocrit red blood cell volume (HCT)
  • Hemoglobin concentration (HB).
  • Differential white blood count
  • Red blood cell indices (measurements)
  • To aid in diagnosing anemia, certain cancers of the blood, inflammatory diseases, and to monitor blood loss and infection
  • Prothrombin time (PT)
  • Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
  • International Normalized Ratio (INR)
  • Bone marrow biopsy

Other tests are:

  • Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)
  • Coomb's Test - Direct / Indirect
  • ESR
  • G6PDH
  • HbA2
  • Lupus Anticoagulant(LA1,LA2)
  • Peripheral Smear
  • Prothrombin Time (PT)
  • Rapid Malaria Test
  • Reticulocyte Count
  • Coagulation Profile
  • Thrombophilia Profile

Clinical Biochemistry

Our clinical biochemistry Unit at the Pathology department provides routine and specialized biochemical tests such as tumor markers, therapeutic drug monitoring, and hormone assays. We have a turnaround time, which is at par with international standards.

Our Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory meets the requirements of the national quality standard. We possess sophisticated, automated operations that aids and support both routine and urgent testing.

Services provided by the department

  • Blood Sugar
  • Bloor Urea
  • Serum Cholesterol
  • Lipid Profile
  • LFT
  • KFT

Routine and stat testing

  • Zinc blood levels
  • Lithium psychiatric drug levels
  • Pseudo choline esterase test to determine organophosphate poisoning
  • Blood test lipase test
  • Blood digoxin level
  • Acetaminophen drug level blood monitoring
  • Gentamicin blood level monitoring
  • Cardiovascular disease risk factors
  • HDL cholesterol monitoring

Special Testing Unit

  • Catecholamine blood
  • Urine tests to determine pheochromocytoma
  • 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid in the urine to evaluate carcinoids
  • Serotonin in the blood to determine carcinoids
  • Homovanillic acid test to evaluate neuroblastoma diagnosis, a medical condition primarily in newborns and infants

Our unit also measures TPMT (thiopurine methyltransferase) enzyme activity, thiopurine metabolite levels, and more:

  • AFP (alpha-fetoprotein or α-fetoprotein)
  • CA-125
  • CA-15.3
  • CA-72.4
  • CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen)
  • CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen)
  • PSA (prostate-specific antigen)

Drug-level monitoring

  • Amikacin
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Benzodiazepines (urine)
  • Barbiturates (urine)
  • Valproic acid
  • Tacrolimus (such as Prograf)
  • Methotrexate
  • Salicylates
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Primidone
  • Cyclosporine
  • Quinidine
  • Carbamazepine
  • Theophylline

Metabolic tests

  • Apo A (apolipoprotein A)
  • Apo B( apolipoprotein B)
  • G-6PD (glucose 6 – phosphate dehydrogenase)
  • HbA1C (hemoglobin A1C type)
  • LP(a) (lipoprotein a)
  • Lactate
  • Hemoglobin electrophoresis

Special biochemical tests

  • Zinc (urine or semen)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (LDH-ISO)
  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (ISO-ALP)
  • Creatine phosphatase isoenzymes (ISO-CPK)
  • Sweat conductivity test (to diagnose cystic fibrosis - CF)
  • Copper (blood and urine)

General urine tests

  • Automated urine chemistry
  • Urinary sediment microscopy
  • Reducing substances
  • Bladder stones

Cytopathology Laboratory

Our Cytopathology lab is well equipped with the latest screening and diagnostic facilities for testing and analyzing gynaecologic, non -gynecologic, and fine-needle aspiration specimens in the shortest possible turnaround time. Yashoda’s hospital state-of-the-art clinical diagnostic laboratory is a leading provider of testing and consultation in cytopathology.

Our fully accredited laboratory is staffed by nationally recognized cytopathologists with specialization in all areas of cytology. In addition, the laboratory works in close association with physicians and scientists in personalized flow cytometry, genomic medicine, and cytogenetics to offer additional specialized studies. The members of our laboratory offer a multidisciplinary team approach to ensure a high quality of testing and diagnosis.

What is Cytopathology?

The cytopathology method is the use of specialist diagnostic techniques to analyze individual cells, which are extracted from the tissues to identify the cause and nature of a disease. During routine diagnostic tests, such as bronchoscopy and cystoscopy, cell samples are gathered.

The cytopathology process is the analysis of cells samples, which is a rapid process that requires specialist training to correctly recognize cells that poses potential dangers to a patient such as infected cells, pre-cancerous and cancerous cells. Our trained cytopathologists lookout for any viral infections and cancers and precancerous changes in cells.

Advanced Technology Used By Us:

We provide online delivery of patient reports and possess fully automated analytical systems. Some of the equipment used in several sections are- automated systems for cytopathology and automated haematology analyzers: BioRad Variant II HPLC system, Coagulometer-ACL Elite Pro, Horiba Yumizen h2500, Beckman Acess II, ELISA system, BACTEC 9120, Architect, ABOTT platforms for chemistry and immunoassays, etc.

Our Cytopathology Test List Include;

  • Anal pap
  • Body cavity fluids, cytopathology
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage
  • Brush biopsy specimen
  • Cerebrospinal fluid, cytology
  • Cyst fluid, cytology
  • Fine needle aspiration
  • Pap test
  • Skin scrape or discharge
  • Sputum
  • Urine, cytology
  • Wash/washing

Histopathology

At Yashoda hospital, our Histopathology Unit offers the latest and precise opinion on specimens from Urology, Gynaecology, Gastroenterology, Cardiology, Respiratory Medicine, Orthopaedics. Our specialized experts and doctors also offer highly specialized recommendations on areas such as Oncology, Neurology, and Transplant units.

What is Histopathology?

Histopathology is the diagnosis and study of the various diseases of the tissues that include analyzing tissues and/or cells under a microscope. Our trained and expert histopathologists diagnose various tissues causing diseases and helping the physicians in managing patients care.

Advanced Technology Used By Us

We use advanced technology, including:

  • Tissue Processors
  • Microtome
  • Research Microtomes
  • Cryostat
  • Tissue Embedders
  • Specimen Labeling Products
  • Sample Tracking System

What are the applications of Histopathologists?

Histopathologists are generally doctors that work with other departments and clinical specialties. By examining a small piece of tissue from the liver, skin, kidney, or other organs, our hispathologists carefully examine the tissue under a microscope to look for any changes in the cells that may explain the symptoms or signs for illness.

To provide a diagnostic service for cancer, our expert histopathologists provide a diagnostic service for cancer. They provide information as to which tumor is benign, malignant, and determine the stage of cancer.

Histopathology Test Procedure

There are various tests procedure which involves the examination of sampled tissues under a microscope using three types of specimens:

  • Larger specimens: During the surgical operations, large specimens, which include organs or parts of organs, are removed. These organs may include tonsils after a tonsillectomy, large bowel after a colectomy, etc.
  • Pieces of Tissues: Some pieces of tissues are taken for performing the test.
  • Fluid and tiny pieces of tissues: Miniscule pieces of tissues and fluid (cells or fluids around the lungs, etc.) are obtained through fine needle aspiration.

Our Clinical Histopathology tests are:

  • Appendix
  • Autopsy (Baby)
  • Breast Lump
  • Cervical polyp histology
  • Histology
  • Histology (large)
  • Histology (medium)
  • Histology Breast Excision
  • Histology Skin
  • Prostate biopsy histology
  • Thyroid gland histology
  • Tiny biopsy
  • Trut- cut / core biopsy
  • Trut/Core Biopsy
  • Urethral curancle histology

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) laboratory

In the field of oncology, we provide outstanding diagnostic and prognostic applications in our state-of-the-art automation and technology immunohistochemistry laboratory. We provide reliable and deliverables results in our IHC labs in minimal turnaround time. Our Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Lab is an extensive lab that has established state-of-the-art automation and technology to deliver outstanding IHC staining for hundreds of targets in human tissue. The IHC lab conducts FISH assays for the prognosis and diagnosis of solid tumors and the assessment of various breast cancer markers. Our advanced lab is well equipped to develop and apply new tests for clinical trials. Our expert lab technologists and doctors offer frequent consultations to different outpatients and serve as a reference laboratory for several tests for hospitals in the region.

The significant highlights of the lab include:

  • Flow cytometric evaluation of lymphomas
  • Frozen section technique for faster diagnosis

Advanced Technology Used By Us

We use the latest state-of-the-art technology, which includes

  • IHC Primary Antibodies
  • Bond-Max IHC and ISH strainer
  • BOND-RX Multiplex IHC Stainer
  • BOND-III Automated IHC Stainer

What Do IHC Tests Measure?

Immunohistochemistry is a method that is used to determine the presence and level of specific cellular proteins. IHC is used to measure protein expression by using specially labeled antibodies that bind itself to the proteins of interest.

What are the applications of the IHC Tests?

IHC has an added advantage over traditionally used special enzyme staining techniques as it can identify different varieties of proteins, enzymes, and tissue structures. Some of the uses that IHC offers are:

  • Prognostic Markers in Cancer: Physicians use IHC tests to diagnose cancer as benign or malignant, identify the cell type, evaluate the stage and grade of a tumor, and origin of metastasis to find the location of the primary tumor.
  • Tumors of Uncertain Histogenesis: IHC technique is used to diagnose the tumours of certain origin, such as primary as well as metastatic from the unknown primary tumor.
  • Prediction of Response to Therapy: IHC technique is used to forecast therapeutic response in two important tumors, i.e., carcinoma of prostate and breast. Estrogen and androgen, the growth-regulating hormones, are specific receptors and are located on respective tumor cells. If estrogen therapy in prostate cancer and androgen therapy in breast cancer is provided, the tumour would express a high level of receptor positivity, which is detected by the test.
  • Infections: Immunohistochemical technique is also performed to confirm infectious agents in tissues by use of particular antibodies against microbial DNA or RNA, e.g., in Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Cytomegalovirus, etc. IHC is also used to identify organisms in cytological preparations such as sputum samples, fluids, and material obtained from fine-needle aspiration procedures.
  • In Genetics: the IHC technique is also used to assess the function of specific gene products in fundamental biological processes, including development and apoptosis.
  • Neurodegenerative Disorders: IHC tests have been used to classify various neurodegenerative disorders and the development of consensus criteria for their diagnosis.
  • Brain Trauma: Immunohistochemical staining for beta-amyloid precursor protein has been proved as an effective method to determine axonal injury within as little as 2–3 hours of head injury.
  • IHC in Muscle Diseases: IHC technique is also used to determine abnormalities in several muscle proteins that have been identified in muscular dystrophies. IHC can support in establishing a specific diagnosis of the dystrophies for which particular protein abnormalities are known.

Clinical Microbiology and Serology

At Yashoda hospital, the clinical microbiology laboratory plays an essential role because it helps in the diagnosis and management of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. In our laboratory, we offer pathogen detection, identification, and susceptibility testing on the basis of empirical antimicrobial therapy and individually tailored regimens.

Our state-of-the-art clinical microbiology laboratory at Yashoda Hospital focuses not only on routine cultures and sensitivities testing but also look out for any serological, molecular, and immunological diagnostic tests for all infectious diseases.

Our microbiology laboratory also provides epidemiologic data that support the hospital epidemiologist in the detection, investigation, prevention, and termination of nosocomial outbreaks.

Advanced Technology

We have standardized equipment such as Phoenix BD Id/AST, Minineph, Minividas, Architect, BACTEC 9120, MGIT960, etc. and high-tech nucleic acid detection techniques for rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases.

We have various sections in our clinical microbiology unit:

1. Immunology lab

2. Virology lab

3. Serology lab

4. Mycology lab

5 . Bacteriology lab

6 . Parasitilogy lab

Some of the Services provided are:

  • Hormonal assays
  • Dengue IgM serology and NS1Ag
  • Various ELISA test (Ferritin, Hepatitis, TTG, etc.)
  • Serological test (Widal, VDRL, etc.)
  • Fungal culture and KOH examination
  • Culture and sensitivity of different samples and special staining
  • Malaria testing and Parasite detection in stool
  • TB culture and AFB staining


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0120 – 4182000

Emergency Numbers

+91 - 9810922042