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Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant Unit

Bone Marrow Transplant Centre at Yashoda hospital is one of the largest Bone Marrow Transplant centers in India. We offer our experienced services to patients across a wider catchment area. The Centre takes pride in delivering advanced patient care supported by a team of expert surgeons, haematologists, doctors, and nurses for providing superior Bone marrow transplant services with excellent patient outcomes.

What Is Autologous Transplant?

Autologous refers to cells that are acquired from the patient's body, who is the donor and the receiver simultaneously. Autologous transplant is usually performed on the patient using his/her bone marrow or stem cells.

The transplant process can be conducted either by using bone marrow harvesting or peripheral blood stem cells:

  • Bone Marrow Harvesting: In this process, the bone marrow is harvested first from the Centre of the bones such as Hip bone, and pelvis, by sedating the patient using general anesthesia. The bone marrow is extracted with multiple needle aspirations.
  • Stem Cells Harvesting: The process of harvesting Peripheral blood stem cells from the patient's body is called Apheresis. In this process, using an apheresis machine, the blood is removed from the patient's arm and is transferred to a special centrifuge. The stem cells are isolated from the blood, and the leftover blood is transferred back to the patient through another arm.

The next step involves processing the harvested Bone marrow/ stem cells.

What Are The Indications For This Transplantation?

Numerous severe and often fatal illnesses require bone marrow transplant as a cure. Such illnesses include:

  • Cancerous illnesses (80% of cases)

This kind of disease includes various types of blood cancers, leukaemias, and certain diseases of the lymphatic system. This situation can come up with people of any age group.

  • Non-malignant illnesses

These illnesses consist of a condition where the bone marrow stops functioning consequently to hepatitis or poisoning or with no evident cause. This category also consists of conditions where the creation of a specific type of red blood cell is disrupted, such as thalassemia or drepanocytosis. It also consists of severe infant immunodeficiencies or hereditary disease.

What Is The Procedure Of The Transplantation?

Since it's a vital treatment process, a patient must undergo different methods before the transplant to ensure high safety and better outcomes.

Step 1: Pre-transplant Process: To ensure the patient's general health and the status of the medical condition, a doctor might prescribe Pre-transplant tests and procedures, where a series of tests and procedures are performed. This process of analysis may take several days.

  • Beginning Medical Evaluation
  • Conference For Treatment Plan
  • Central Venous Catheter Evaluation And Insertion
  • Bone-Marrow/Stem Cells Harvest

Step 2: Conditioning Process: After completing the medical evaluation, a patient will undergo the conditioning process. This process involves the use of either chemotherapy or radiation therapy or a combination to:

  • Destroy any cancer cells in case of malignancy
  • Preparing the patient's bone marrow for the growth of new stem cells.
  • Suppressing the patient's immune system

Step 3: Autologous Transplant: For the cytotoxic treatment, the patient has to undergo the transplantation of the harvested where processed cells are put back into the patient's body, through a central venous catheter. These cells then move through the bloodstream into the bones' places, where they tend to create new bone marrow.

Step 4: Engraftment: The patient is kept under close monitoring for the sign of the growth of new stem cells along with supportive care.

Step 5: The Patient undergoes Post Engraftment monitoring and continuation of immunosuppression

What Are The Precautions One Must Take Before And After The Transplantation?

The precautions a patient must follow on a doctor's advice, before and after the transplantation process include:

Before the Transplantation:

  • Tell your cancer doctor about your medical history or current medication (if any).
  • Undergo all the tests and procedures asked by your doctor.
  • Prepare yourself for the transplant both mentally and physically.
  • Avoid the use of Alcohol and Tobacco, a week before the transplant.
  • Do not eat a heavy meal a day before the transplant.

After the Transplantation:

  • Your immune system is weak; you might catch infections easily and maintain average body temperature.
  • Take all the medications prescribed by the doctor on time.
  • Avoid environmental exposure.
  • Try to keep your room clean and focus more on maintaining proper hygiene.
  • Make sure to make handwashing a habit before and after everything you do.
  • Get the proper vaccination.
  • Maintain a healthy balanced diet.

Are There Any Risk Complications Involved?

Usually, a patient receives high-intensity doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy before a transplant, resulting in complications such as:

  • Infections
  • Bleeding
  • Anemia
  • Organ problems, such as liver and lung problems

Other complications due to transplant include:

  • Pain
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Hives
  • Chest pain

There is a high success rate of autologous bone marrow transplant as it is the safest transplantation with very few complications involved.



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