Uterine Cancer Types, Stages, Signs, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnostic Procedures, Treatment, Specialists & Doctors
The uterus (also known as the womb) is a pear-shaped hollow organ located in the pelvic region between the bladder and rectum. It is an important part of the female reproductive system. A baby resides and develops during pregnancy in the uterus.
The uterus has 3 important parts – the cervix, isthmus, and fundus. The lower narrower section of the uterus is called the cervix while the middle broader section is known as the isthmus. The upper dome-shaped structure of the uterus is called the fundus. The uterus is made up of 3 layers – the inner layer is called endometrium; the middle layer is called myometrium (entirely constituted by a thick layer of muscles) and the thin outer lining of the uterus is known as a serosa.
Each month, the ovaries release eggs and the uterus prepares itself, as the endometrium layer grows and thickens in the preparation of pregnancy. If the woman does not get pregnant, then this endometrial lining breaks off and passes out of her body in the form of blood and mucus through the vagina. This process is known as menstruation (also known as periods) and continues until the ovaries stops producing eggs (menopause).
When the uterus cells grow out of control, they form a tumor (odd masses of cells) causing a disease called uterine cancer. It is the most common type of cancer which affects the female reproductive system.
What are the types of uterine cancer?
Uterine cancer can be classified into the following types:
- Endometrial cancer
- Uterine sarcoma
Endometrial cancer or adenocarcinoma is the most common type of cancer which makes up more than 90% of the uterine cancers. This cancer affects the endometrium layer of the uterus. A common form of this cancer is endometrioid carcinoma which accounts for most of the cases of endometrial cancer. The other less common forms of endometrial cancer that occur are serous adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, uterine clear cell carcinoma, and uterine carcinosarcoma.
Uterine sarcoma is a type of uterine cancer which affects the middle layer of the uterus called myometrium or the supporting tissue of the uterine gland. Various types of uterine sarcoma include uterine leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated sarcoma. The occurrence of these cancers is less than 1% of all uterine cancers.
What are the signs & symptoms of uterine cancer?
Women with uterine cancer show the following symptoms:
- Vaginal discharge
- Pain while urinating
- Pain in the abdomen or in the pelvic region
- Abnormal uterine bleeding
- Pain during intercourse
What are the risk factors of uterine cancer?
Here are some of the risk factors which increase the chances of developing uterine cancer in women:
Age: Women over 50 years of age are more likely to develop uterine cancer.
Obesity: Fat tissue in obese women produce high levels of oestrogen which increases the chances of uterine cancer.
Race: Uterine cancer is most common in white women than women of other ethnicities.
Diabetes: Women with type 2 diabetes are more prone to endometrial cancer. Genetics: The presence of heredity diseases like Lynch syndrome, colon cancer, etc. also increase the risk factor in women.
Tamoxifen: The use of this drug to treat or to prevent breast cancer may also increase the chances of developing uterine cancer.
Other cancers: Women with the history of other cancers s breast cancer, colon cancer, and ovarian cancer are at high risk of uterine cancer.
Irregular menstrual cycles: Infertility and irregular menstrual cycles creates hormonal imbalances in the oestrogen and progesterone levels which may increase the risk factor of uterine cancer.
What are the stages of uterine cancer?
Staging and grading are the ways used by the doctors to identify the cancer location, area of its spread or whether it is affecting other parts of the body or not, based on diagnostic tests and results.
Stage 1: This stage shows that the cancer is located only in the womb.
Stage 2: This stage signifies that cancer has spread from the womb to the cervical stroma but not to the other body parts.
Stage 3: This stage shows that cancer has spread beyond the uterus but is still located in the pelvic region.
Stage 4: This stage signifies that cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum, and various organs.
What are the diagnostic procedures for uterine cancer?
Doctors at YASHODA SUPERSPECIALITY HOSPITAL & CANCER INSTITUTE, SANJAY NAGAR, GHAZIABAD will conduct various procedures and tests to diagnose uterine cancer as per the signs and symptoms shown by women with uterine cancer. Some of the tests and procedures are as follows: • Pelvic examination
- Endometrial biopsy
- Dilation & curettage (D&C)
- CT Scan
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Transvaginal ultrasound
- Other additional tests
What type of treatment is available for uterine cancer?
Different types of treatment are available to treat patients with uterine cancer. Some of the standard treatments used are:
1.Surgery: It is the most common treatment used to treat uterine cancer by removing the cancer-affected area surgically.
2.Radiation Therapy: This therapy uses high-energy beam radiation to kill cancer cells at the site of infection.
3.Chemotherapy: It is a treatment in which various drugs are used to destroy cancer cells, thereby preventing them from further division.
4. Hormone Therapy: This treatment blocks the action of those hormones whose high levels in the body were supporting the growth of cancer cells.
5. Target Therapy: This therapy is used to target cancer-specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment (which was supporting cancer growth and survival).
6. Immunotherapy: It is also known as biologic therapy; it is used to boost the natural defence system of the body to fight against cancer.
Best Uterine Cancer Treatment Hospital in Delhi NCR or Ghaziabad– Yashoda Superspeciality Hospital & Cancer Institute, Sanjay Nagar, Ghaziabad
Dr. (Brig.) Arvind Kumar Tyagi is the Director of Surgical Oncology at Yashoda Superspeciality Hospital & Cancer Institute. With more than 30 years of medical experience and fellowship and training in surgical oncology from Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, he is the best surgical oncologist for treating uterine cancer. Besides this, Dr. Tyagi has been practicing as a surgical oncologist across various Armed Forces Hospitals all over India.
YASHODA SUPERSPECIALITY HOSPITAL & CANCER INSTITUTE, SANJAY NAGAR, GHAZIABAD provides the best uterine cancer treatment; it is one of the leading hospitals in Ghaziabad. Our oncologists provide world-class treatment for uterine cancer; they use a multi-disciplinary approach to treat the disease. Patients with such diseases in DELHI NCR can easily approach the hospital for treatment.