Types of Diabetes: Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Prevention

Types of Diabetes: Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Prevention
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Diabetes mellitus, also referred to as diabetes, is a metabolic disorder that causes high blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that helps in moving sugar from the blood into the body to be stored or used as a source of energy. Diabetes occurs when the body does not make enough insulin or cannot use the insulin produced by the pancreas effectively.

Untreated high blood sugar can cause damage to the eyes, nerves, kidneys and other parts of the body.

Types of Diabetes:

  • Type 1 Diabetes: It is an auto-immune disorder in which the immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas where insulin is made. It has been estimated that about 10 per cent of people have this type of diabetes.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: This type of diabetes occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin and sugar build-up in the blood.
  • Pre-Diabetes: This type of diabetes occurs when the blood sugar level is higher than normal.
  • Gestational Diabetes: This type of diabetes occurs when the blood sugar level gets high during pregnancy. It is caused due to the production of insulin-blocking hormones by the placenta.

Read Also: Type 2 Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Symptoms of Diabetes:

The general symptoms of diabetes may include:

  • Increased hunger
  • Increased thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurry vision
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Sores that do not heal
Symptoms in Men:

Apart from the general symptoms, men with diabetes may suffer from a decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction and poor muscle strength.

Symptoms in Women:         

Women may show various other symptoms like Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), yeast infection, and dry and itchy skin.

Read Also: How to Control Diabetes In Pregnancy

Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes May Include:

  • Extreme hunger and thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Tiredness
  • Mood swings

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes May Include:

  • Increased hunger and thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurry vision
  • Tiredness
  • Slow healing sores
  • Recurring body infections

Causes of Diabetes:

Various causes linked with each type of diabetes are as follows:

Type 1 Diabetes: The cause of this diabetes is still unknown. Genes might be the reason for this in some people. Sometimes, viruses also set off the immune system attack.

Type 2 Diabetes: This type of diabetes runs in families and stems from a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Obesity and extra fat deposition in the abdominal areas make the cells more resistant to the effects of insulin on blood sugar.

Gestational Diabetes: It is generally caused due to hormonal imbalance during pregnancy. Women who are overweight during pregnancy are more likely to get gestational pregnancy.

Read Also: Ideal Treatment For Diabetes

Risk Factors for Diabetes:

Various factors that increase the risk for diabetes are as follows:

Type 1 Diabetes: This type of diabetes is more likely to pass on to children from parents with this condition. Certain kinds of genes are also related to this type of disease.

Type 2 Diabetes: Risk factors that increase the chances of getting type 2 diabetes are as follows:

  • Being overweight
  • Age 45 or above
  • Having a parent or sibling with a similar condition
  • Physical inactivity
  • Being prediabetic
  • High blood pressure, high cholesterol or high triglycerides

Diabetes Complications:

Serious medical complications that are related to diabetes are as follows:

  • Heart disease, heart attack & stroke
  • Neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Loss of vision
  • Hearing loss
  • Depression
  • Dementia
  • Skin infections caused by bacteria & fungi

Read Also: What are the types of Nose Surgeries?

Gestational Diabetes:

Uncontrolled gestational diabetes can affect both the mother and baby. Complications linked with the baby may include:

  • Premature birth
  • Low blood sugar
  • Jaundice
  • Stillbirth
  • Higher than normal weight at birth

Diagnosis of Diabetes:

Doctors at Yashoda Hospital & Research, Centre Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad may conduct various tests to diagnose the different kinds of diabetes. Some of them are given below:

  • It is often advisable that a person who has symptoms of diabetes or is at risk of the disease should be tested.
  • Pregnant women should be tested for gestational diabetes during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
  • Doctors may use a Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) test to measure the blood sugar level after 8 hours of fasting.
  • The A1C test can also be used to measure blood sugar levels.
  • Doctors may check the blood sugar level of pregnant women between 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy for gestational diabetes.

Treatment of Diabetes:

Doctors at Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad use different kinds of medication to treat the disease. Some of these drugs may be administered orally or available as injections.

Type 1 Diabetes: Insulin is considered as the best treatment for type 1 diabetes as it replaces the hormone that our body is not able to produce.

Four types of insulin generally used in treating diabetes are as follows:

  • Rapid-acting insulin works within 15 minutes of administration and lasts for 3 to 4 hours.
  • Short-acting insulin works within 30 minutes and lasts for 6 to 8 hours.
  • Intermediate-acting insulin works within 1 to 2 hours of administration and generally lasts for 12 to 18 hours.
  • Long-lasting insulin works within a few hours of being administered and lasts for 24 hours or longer.

Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes can be easily managed with proper diet and exercise. Certain medications like Alpha glucosidase inhibitors, Biguanides, DPP-4 inhibitors etc. can be used to lower blood sugar levels.

Diabetes Prevention:

Type 1 diabetes is not preventable as it is caused by problems in the immune system. Factors like age and genes are also not under our control and they may also cause the disease.

Read Also: Ear Surgeries : Addressing Hearing and Ear Health Concerns

Risk Reduction Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes:

Increase Physical Activity:

Engaging in regular exercise such as cycling or other forms of aerobic activity can significantly improve glycemic control.

Dietary Modification:

Limit intake of refined carbohydrates, saturated fats, and trans-fats. Focus on a balanced diet rich in whole grains, fruits and vegetables.

Weight Management:

Maintaining a healthy body weight is crucial for insulin sensitivity and reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Best Doctors for Diabetes at Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad:

Dr. Saurabh Gupta is the Head of Department and Senior Consultant of Internal Medicine at Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad. With over 16 years of experience in internal medicine, Dr. Gupta holds an M.B.B.S. from the University of Mumbai and a D.N.B. from NBE, Delhi. Renowned for his proficiency and expertise, he is also an awarded professional.

Dr. Atul Raturi is a Senior Consultant in Internal Medicine at Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad. Dr. Raturi holds an MBBS from Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, and an MD from Kanpur. With over 15 years of experience, he specializes in treating patients in the ICU and critical care wards.

Dr. Amit Rai is an expert in clinical cardiology and medicine with 34 years of experience. He earned his M.B.B.S. and M.D. in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, and completed a fellowship in non-invasive cardiology. Dr. Rai has published papers in both national and international journals and currently serves as a Senior Consultant in Internal Medicine at Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad.

Dr. Jalaj Dixit is currently serving as a senior consultant in internal medicine at Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad. He is a dedicated and compassionate internal medicine specialist trained at some of the best hospitals and institutions in India. With more than 10 years of experience in internal medicine at reputed hospitals in the Delhi NCR, such as Dr. RML Hospital, North DMC Medical College, and Hindu Rao Hospital in New Delhi, Dr. Dixit brings a wealth of expertise to his practice.

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Yashoda Hospital

Yashoda Hospital

Yashoda Hospital is one of the best super specialty hospitals in Ghaziabad, Noida & Delhi NCR. Yashoda Hospital aims at providing the best healthcare services across the country and not just in Delhi NCR, Ghaziabad & Noida. Being a super speciality hospital, Yashoda Hospital has a number of dedicated specialities under one roof- gastroenterology, general surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology, cardiology, pulmonology & internal medicine, orthopedics, urology and many more.

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