Rhinosinusitis: Types, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Rhinosinusitis: Types, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
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What are Paranasal Sinuses?

Paranasal sinuses are hollow spaces in facial bones that are lined by the mucosa in continuation with the nasal cavity. The different types of paranasal sinuses include frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus, and sphenoid sinus named after the bone in which they are housed. Whenever there is any infection or inflammation of the nose and sinuses, it is termed rhinosinusitis.

Types of Rhinosinusitis:

There are mainly two types of rhinosinusitis depending on the duration:

  1. Acute Rhinosinusitiswhich lasts for less than 12 weeks and
  2. Chronic Rhinosinusitiswhich lasts for more than 12 weeks (with or without treatment)

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Causes of Rhinosinusitis:

Acute Rhinosinusitis is mainly caused by viral/bacterial infections while Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) is caused by infections or inflammations as a result of chronic exposure to certain irritants in the environment/fungus resulting in blockage of sinus drainage or polyp formation.

Various factors contribute to the causation of sinusitis such as pollution or airborne irritants, congested city lives, dust, and allergies.

Timely attention should be given to the symptoms of rhinosinusitis to prevent more serious complications due to the infection spreading to neighboring structures such as the eyes and the brain, leading to conditions such as orbital cellulitis/abscess and meningitis/brain abscess. Unresolved rhinosinusitis can also precipitate or worsen asthma.

Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) is mainly divided into two types: Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP); and Chronic Rhinosinusitis without Nasal Polyps (CRSsNP).

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Symptoms, Treatment, and When to Seek Help in Case of Rhinosinusitis:

Common Symptoms of Rhinosinusitis:

Symptoms include:

  • Fever and fatigue
  • Nasal blockage and discharge
  • Facial pain or fullness, headache
  • Reduced sense of smell or taste

How is Rhinosinusitis Confirmed?

Rhinosinusitis is confirmed by:

  • Clinical examination with nasal endoscopy
  • Computed Tomography scan (CT Scan)

Important Note: Seek immediate medical attention for Rhinosinusitis in the case of:

  • Fever lasting over 10 days
  • Redness and swelling in the eye, double vision
  • Severe headache, vomiting

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Treatment Options for Rhinosinusitis:

Acute Rhinosinusitis:

  • Antipyretics and analgesics to reduce fever and pain
  • Saline nasal irrigation and spray to improve drainage and reduce irritants
  • Antihistamines and leukotriene modifiers to control the allergic symptoms (if applicable)

Bacterial Rhinosinusitis:

  • Antibiotics to target bacterial infection
  • Nasal and oral steroids to reduce inflammation and aid drainage

How to Treat Severe or Chronic Cases of Rhinosinusitis:

Endoscopic sinus surgery may be used in chronic cases to improve drainage and address structural issues due to rhinosinusitis.

Read Also: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Rhinorrhoea (Watery Nasal Discharge)

Remember: This information is for general knowledge only. For diagnosis and treatment, always consult a qualified healthcare professional.

Consult the Best ENT Specialist for Rhinosinusitis:

For further personalized assessment and treatment, book an appointment with the best ENT doctor at Yashoda Hospital, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad:

Dr. (Lt. Col.) Ravi Roy is a distinguished otolaryngologist with over 20 years of experience. Currently, the Senior Consultant at Yashoda Hospital, he specializes in CSF rhinorrhea and sinus surgeries, apart from being an acclaimed teacher, published author, and sought-after speaker at national and international medical conferences.

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Yashoda Hospital

Yashoda Hospital

Yashoda Hospital is one of the best super specialty hospitals in Ghaziabad, Noida & Delhi NCR. Yashoda Hospital aims at providing the best healthcare services across the country and not just in Delhi NCR, Ghaziabad & Noida. Being a super speciality hospital, Yashoda Hospital has a number of dedicated specialities under one roof- gastroenterology, general surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology, cardiology, pulmonology & internal medicine, orthopedics, urology and many more.

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