Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that uses a catheter-based procedure to diagnose and treat various heart conditions like coronary artery disease, vascular disease, structural heart disease, and congenital heart defects. Interventional cardiologists use various techniques, imaging and diagnostic tools to evaluate cardiovascular functions like blood pressure and blood flow in major arteries throughout the body.
Difference between Interventional cardiologist, General cardiologist and Cardiac surgeons:
Interventional cardiologists are skilled and qualified in performing catheter-based treatment for certain heart conditions. Interventional cardiologists perform various procedures like stent placement in the clogged artery, to repair holes in the heart or place special devices in the heart for it to function normally. They are known to perform delicate life-saving and life-enhancing procedures like valve defects or structural deformities.
General cardiologists are expert and proficient in diagnosing and treating various conditions like stroke, hypertension, high cholesterol, and heart attack. General cardiologists do not perform open heart surgery or endoscopic procedures but they can conduct and order many types of tests and procedures like heart rhythm disorders.
Cardiac surgeons are experienced in performing open heart surgery such as bypass surgery. Patients who can’t be treated with medications are referred to cardiac surgeons.
The Interventional cardiology – body connection:
Interventional cardiologists usually treat the cardiovascular system including the heart, heart valves and the arteries, mainly coronary arteries. Paediatric interventional cardiologists on the other hand focus on congenital heart disease or abnormalities in the heart that are present at the time of birth.
Treating a wide variety of Cardiac Conditions:
Interventional cardiologists are expert in treating numerous of heart conditions like:
- Acute coronary syndrome
- Angioplasty and restenosis
- Angioplasty and stent placement
- Aortic aneurysm
- Aortic disease and dissection
- Aortic valve replacement
- Transcatheter aortic valve replacement(TAVR)
- Atrial septal defect
- Cardiac imaging and ultrasound
- Cardiac catheterization
- Carotid artery disease
- Coronary artery disease
- Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
- Left ventricular assist device
- Peripheral vascular disease
- Stem cell therapy for heart failure
Types of Interventional cardiology diagnostic tests:
Interventional cardiologist performs various diagnostic tests on all peoples of all ages. The diagnostic tests ordered by the interventional cardiologist will depend on the overall health of the patients. Some of the diagnostic tests used are as follows:
- Cardiac computed tomography: It uses x-ray technology to create a cross-sectional image of the heart to identify various conditions like aortic disease, cardiac masses, pericardial disease etc.
- Coronary angiography: This imaging technique uses contrast dyes that are injected into the bloodstream to detect blockages and other cardiovascular conditions.
- Digital subtraction angiography: This imaging method is used to get the clear visuals of the blood vessels by digitally removing structures such as bones etc.
- Echocardiogram: This imaging test uses ultrasound to create images of the cardiovascular system.
- Intravascular ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create an image of the inside of the blood vessels.
- Magnetic resonance imaging: MRI creates a digital and detailed image of the structures in and out of the heart.
- Myocardial perfusion imaging: In this diagnostic test, a radioactive substance like thallium is injected into the bloodstream to take the images of the heart muscle cells.
Types of Interventional cardiology procedures:
Interventional cardiologists perform a variety of procedures to treat various heart conditions such as:
Alcohol septal ablation: This procedure is a non-surgical way to treat hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (thickening of the heart muscles). In this treatment a small amount of ethanol alcohol is injected into the small arteries that supplies blood to the thickened part of the muscles causing the cells to die and thus shrinks the dead tissues.
- Angioplasty: In this procedure, a balloon-like structure or stent is used to open a blocked artery and restore its flow.
- Cardiac catheterization: This treatment is used to examine the functioning of the heart by using a catheter which is inserted into a large blood vessel that leads into the heart.
- Atrial septal defect closure: This treatment is used to seal any hole in the heart (Atrial septal defects).
- Aortic balloon valvuloplasty and mitral balloon valvuloplasty: This treatment is used in patients with narrow aortic valve or mitral valve.
- Chronic total occlusion intervention: It is a minimally invasive stenting procedure used to treat complete blockage of the coronary arteries.
Carotid artery stenting: This treatment is generally used to open narrowed or blocked carotid arteries.
- Directional coronary atherectomy: It is an endovascular procedure used to remove clogging from the coronary arteries.
- Endovascular thrombectomy: This procedure removes the thrombus (blood clots) from the artery.
- Percutaneous coronary interventions: This procedure is used to treat various coronary artery defects.
- Stenting: It is a minimally invasive procedure in which a small device is implanted in the coronary artery to widen up the blocked coronary artery.
- Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR): It is an endoscopic heart procedure used to replace narrowed aortic valve. This treatment is also known as Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
Some of the best cardiologists in Delhi NCR are:
Dr. Rajat Arora is the Group Director Of Yashoda Group of Hospitals, Uttar Pradesh. Dr. Arora has an experience of performing more than 500 PCIs (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) and 6000 coronary angiographies. He also performs various kinds of congenital heart disease interventions such as ASD device closure, VSD device closure and RSOV closure. Apart from these he also performs all types of pacemaker insertions, ICD device and CRT therapy.
Dr. Amit Rai is the senior consultant in the Department of cardiology and medicine and has 34 years of experience in the field of clinical cardiology and medicine.
Dr. Alok Sehgal is one of the best cardiologists in Delhi NCR with over 20 years of experience in the medical field. He performs more than 150 angioplasties and over 500 diagnostic cardiac procedures annually. He specializes in all kinds of diagnostic peripheral vascular diseases, cardiac catheterization and angiographic studies and coronary and peripheral arterial disease.