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A cataract is a vision-related disorder that affects the lens of the eye making it cloudy, opaque, and dysfunctional. The lens of the eye becomes foggy and looking through these cloudy lenses is a bit like looking through a hazy and frosty window. This cloudy vision hinders performing daily routine activities like reading, driving, etc. which requires a sharp vision.

Cataract develops slowly and starts affecting your normal day-to-day activities as it makes your vision blurry. At this point, doctors may recommend you get cataract surgery to treat it. In this surgery, old damaged lenses are removed and replaced with a new artificial lens called an intraocular lens (IOLs).

According to the data reported by the National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB) cataract is one of the leading causes of blindness in India and generally affects people in the age group of 60 or above.

Reasons for Cataract:

The main reason for the development of cataracts is when aging or injury changes the tissue that makes up the lens of your eye. Certain health problems are mostly genetically inherited disorders and these health problems may increase the chances of cataract development. Certain eye conditions like past eye surgery or other medical conditions like diabetes may also lead to the development of cataracts. Sometimes overuse of certain steroid medications can also cause cataracts.

Although there is not enough evidence about the exact reasons for cataracts researchers have recognized some factors which may be the reason for cataracts which are as follows:

  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • High myopia
  • Hypertension
  • Genetic cause
  • Ultraviolet radiation
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Eye injury or inflammation
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Statin medicine can also cause cataracts
  • Overuse of medications such as corticosteroids

Apart from these factors here are some other conditions that speed up the formation of cataracts:

  • Eye surgeries or eye injuries
  • Radiation therapy on the upper body
  • Prolonged and excessive exposure to the sun
  • Use of common medications to treat medical conditions like arthritis and lupus
  • Prolonged use of phenothiazine drugs such as chlorpromazine used to treat various conditions like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

How do cataracts form?

Cataract affects the lens which is located behind the colored part of the eye (iris). The lens focuses the light and produces a sharp and clear image of the retina. With aging, the lens becomes less flexible, less transparent, and thicker. Various medical conditions and age-related issues break the tissue in the lens and make them clump together and make the small areas of the lens cloudy.

Over time, this clouding becomes dense and spread to other parts of the lens developing a cataract. This cataract hinders the normal functioning of the lens and prevents the sharp image from reaching the retina causing blurred vision.

Types of cataracts:

Here are some of the types of cataract that causes blurred vision:

  • Traumatic cataract occurs due to an eye injury.
  • Radiation cataract occurs due to exposure to harmful radiation.
  • A congenital cataract is present from birth and they become noticeable in childhood.
  • Nuclear cataract causes discoloration of the lens.
  • Cortical cataract generally occurs at the corner of the eye lens.

Types of cataract surgery:

Cataract removal surgeries are performed in multiple ways which are as follows:

  1. Phacoemulsification:
    It is the most common traditional surgical method used to treat cataracts.Procedure: In this surgery, a small incision is made at the edge of the cornea with the help of a scalpel. In the next step, a vibrating ultrasound probe is used to break the cloudy lens into smaller fragments. These fragments are removed and a clear intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted.
  2. Extracapsular surgery: This type of cataract surgery is used to treat highly advanced cataractsProcedure: In this surgery, a slightly larger incision is made to remove the cataract. Since this surgery involves larger stitches it makes the recovery slower.
  3. Laser-assisted cataract surgery:Laser-assisted cataract surgery also known as LACS is the modern approach used to treat cataracts.

Procedure: In this surgery, a small ultrasound device is placed in the eye to gather information related to the infected lens like the size, depth, and location of the incision. The laser softens the lens before surgery and detailed information is sent to the computer which programs the laser. This programmed laser is used by the surgeon to make an incision or an aperture in the lens capsule. The ultrasound probe uses ultrasound waves to break the cloudy lens into fragments and later these fragments are removed from the eye. Finally, intraocular lenses (IOL) are implanted.

In this surgery, no stitches are required and various studies have shown that laser surgery gives more accuracy and precision of the incision rather than by hand.

Prevention of cataracts:

There is no proven way to prevent cataracts from developing but here are some ways which can help prevent cataracts:

  • Visit an eye specialist every year and get your eyes checked regularly.
  • Stop smoking cigarettes
  • Maintain healthy weight
  • Keep an eye on your diabetes and other medical conditions
  • Include food items rich in antioxidants in your diet
  • Protect your eye from ultraviolet rays by wearing sunglasses.


It has been found that all cataract surgeries are equally effective, safe, and have the same outcomes. To make a better decision when choosing cataract surgery it is always advisable to consult an eye surgeon. You can fix an appointment with the best eye surgeons and doctors at YASHODA HOSPITAL AND RESEARCH CENTRE NEHRU NAGAR GHAZIABAD as they are well trained experienced in performing various eye-related surgeries including cataract surgeries with great precision and care.

Dr. Arpit Pavaiya is one of the best ophthalmologists in Delhi NCR and currently leads the ophthalmology division at Yashoda Hospital and Research Centre as a Senior Consultant. Dr. Pavaiya has an experience of more than 5 years in treating and diagnosing various rare disorders of the eye. Dr. Pavaiya has a specialization in treating medical conditions like glaucoma and cataract and has performed over 6000 cataract surgeries and helped people in restoring their vision.

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Yashoda Hospital

Yashoda Hospital

Yashoda Hospital is one of the best super specialty hospitals in Ghaziabad, Noida & Delhi NCR. Yashoda Hospital aims at providing the best healthcare services across the country and not just in Delhi NCR, Ghaziabad & Noida. Being a super speciality hospital, Yashoda Hospital has a number of dedicated specialities under one roof- gastroenterology, general surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology, cardiology, pulmonology & internal medicine, orthopedics, urology and many more.

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