Cancer is A disease caused when abnormal or atypical cells divide rapidly and spread to other tissues or organs. It is one of the leading causes of death across the world. In humans, healthy cells have a specific life cycle after which new cells replace the old and damaged cells. Cancer creates an interruption in this process and causes abnormal cells to grow uncontrollably.
Causes of cancer
Cancer is caused when mutations occur in the DNA within the cells. While mutations occur frequently, the normal cells of the body correct these mistakes. If these mistakes are not corrected then the cells turn cancerous. These mutated cells grow continuously and instead of dying they form a mass of cells called a tumour. Benign tumours are not cancerous and do not spread to nearby tissue or organs but malignant tumours are cancerous and can invade other parts of the body. This movement of the cancerous cells through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to different areas of the body is called metastasis. This type of cancer is fatal and generally hard to treat.
Types of cancer
Cancers are generally named for the area in which they grow and the type of cells they are made of, even if they invade different parts of the body. For example, cancer that develops in the lung and spreads to the liver is still recognized as lung cancer. Some common types of cancer are as follows:
- Carcinoma: It is a type of cancer that starts in the skin or the tissues that cover other organs.
- Sarcoma: This type of cancer is generally associated with connective tissues such as bones, blood vessels, muscles, and cartilage.
- Leukemia: This type of cancer generally affects the bone marrow which creates blood cells.
- Lymphoma and myeloma: These types of cancer are associated with the immune system.
Risk factors for cancer
Various risk factors involved in the development of the cancer are as follows:
- Age: Cancer is generally diagnosed in patients 65+ years of age.
- Your habits: Excessive smoking, drinking alcohol, excessive exposure to the sun, being obese, and having unsafe sex can be the contributing risk factors in developing the disease.
- Family history: If cancer is common in your family then you might be at risk of getting the disease.
- Health conditions: Various health conditions like ulcerative colitis can increase the risk of developing certain kinds of cancer.
- Environmental factors: Continuous exposure to some carcinogenic chemicals may also lead to the development of the disease.
Treatment of cancer:
The most common types of treatment used in treating cancer are:
- Surgery: In this method of treatment doctors and surgeons remove the cancerous cells surgically.
- Chemotherapy: This treatment involves the use of some chemotherapeutic drugs that kill the rapidly dividing cancerous cells.
- Radiation therapy: This therapy uses high-energy radiation beams to destroy cancerous cells.
- Stem cell (Bone Marrow) transplant: This treatment repairs the diseased or damaged bone marrow with healthy stem cells.
- Immunotherapy (Biological Therapy): This therapy boosts the immune system to fight against cancerous cells.
- Hormone therapy: This treatment involves the blockage of the hormone that helps the cancerous cells to grow.
- Targeted drug therapy: This therapy uses certain drugs to interfere with certain molecules that help the cancer cells survive.
- Alternative medicines: The use of alternative medicines such as acupuncture, massage, yoga, hypnosis, meditations, etc. can be used to treat symptoms like nausea, fatigue, and pain caused by cancer and its treatment.
How to prevent cancer?
Here are some ways through which cancer can be prevented:
- Stop smoking
- Try to avoid excessive exposure to the sun
- Eat a healthy and properly balanced diet
- Try to be physically active most days of the week
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Limit the consumption of alcohol as much as possible
- Consult doctors about possible vaccinations
Some complications which are caused by cancer and its treatment are as follows:
- Cancer and its treatment may cause pain in the body of the patients.
- Patients may feel fatigued due to chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
- Patients might suffer from shortness of breath during cancer treatment.
- Certain cancer and its treatment can cause nausea-like conditions in patients.
- Patients might also suffer from bowel disorders like constipation and diarrhea.
- There might be sudden weight loss in the patients undergoing cancer treatment.
- Cancer might disrupt the normal chemical balance in the body of the patient and increase the risk of serious complications.
- Some cancers have more chances to recur than others.
If you are suffering from any kind of cancer then you can seek medical advice from the best doctors at YASHODA SUPER SPECIALITY HOSPITAL AND CANCER INSTITUTE, NEHRU NAGAR, GHAZIABAD. It is one of the leading cancer hospitals located in Delhi NCR which provides the best cancer treatment using advanced technologies.
Some of the best-known cancer doctors treating various types of cancers at Yashoda hospital are:
Dr.(Maj. Gen.) B.N. Kapur, the Director of Medical Oncology has a speciality in medical oncology and in treating blood-related disorders like leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, etc. He has served for more than 36 years as a medical oncologist at Armed Force Medical College and Command Hospital, Pune. Dr. Kapur is known for treating solid organ cancer using the latest evidence-based therapies.
Dr. Sushrut Singh is a consultant in the department of gastroenterology and hepatology. He is one of the prominent gastroenterologists in Delhi NCR. He is an advanced endoscopist and expert in endoscopic gastric balloon placement for obesity. He is also known for performing various gastric and liver-related procedures with great precision.
Dr. Vaibhav Saxena is one of the finest urologists and Uro Onco surgeons in Delhi-NCR with an experience of more than 18 years in the medical field. He has done more than 14000 urological surgeries including urological cancer surgery. Dr. Saxena specialises in minimally invasive laparoscopic and robotic surgery for the management and treatment of urological cancers.