Brain Tumor Surgery: Types, Risk Factor, Sign, Symptoms & Treatment
All vital activities of the body are controlled by the brain and spinal cord, which constitute the Central Nervous System (CNS). These vital activities include thought, speech, and body movement. When the cells of the brain grow abnormally, it may lead to the formation of brain tumours that further hinder the functioning of the CNS.
Many types of brain tumours have been identified among which some are benign (non-cancerous) while others are malignant (cancerous). Apart from growing inside the brain, tumours can also grow in other parts of the body and then spread to the brain. This is how secondary or metastatic brain tumours occur.
The development of a brain tumour depends on the location, size, and growth rate of the cells. These factors reveal how a brain tumour will affect the functioning of the nervous system. The prognosis of the tumour is significantly influenced by the early diagnosis of the tumour.
• Primary Brain Tumours
• Secondary Brain Tumours
Primary Brain Tumours:
This type of brain tumour can originate from nerve cells, brain cells, membranes, or meninges around the brain or nervous glands.
Gliomas and meningiomas are the most common type of brain tumours found in adults. It can be both benign and malignant. Gliomas arise from the neuroglial cells or glial cells of the brain.
The types of tumours which originate from the glial cells may include:
• Astrocytic tumours arise from the star-shaped cells of the brain called astrocytes. In
adults, astrocytic tumours generally arise in the brain cerebrum.
• Oligodendroglial tumours originate from the frontal-temporal lobes of the brain.
• Glioblastomas originate within the supportive brain tissue.
Meninges in the brain is the site of the occurrence of meningiomas. It mostly affects individuals between 40 and 70 years of age.
Secondary Brain Tumours:
These show the property of metastasis; that is, they grow in one body part and then spread to your brain. Skin cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, and kidney cancer are some of the types of cancers that may metastasize to the brain.
The following risk factors may be the reason for the development of brain tumours:
● Family History: Brain tumours are rarely genetically inherited. There are just 5-10%
chances of genetic inheritance of brain tumours.
● Age: People of any age can develop brain tumours but it is often seen that brain
tumours are more common in children than in adults.
● Race: There is no specific reason for this but the chances of having brain tumours are
more for white people.
● Chemical exposure: Exposure to certain chemicals may increase the risk of getting a
● Radiation exposure: People who were treated with radiation therapy to cure cancer
may develop brain tumours at a later stage of their life.
Signs and Symptoms
• More frequent and severe headaches
• Nausea and vomiting
• Blurred vision
• Difficulty in balancing
• Confusion and difficulty in making decisions
• Changes in personality and behaviour
Screening and Diagnosis
For the screening and diagnosis, doctors may order certain tests to find or diagnose the
presence of tumours such as:
● Doctors will first try to gather information about the family and medical history of the patient.
● A physical examination along with a neurological examination is performed to check memory, mental status, reflexes, and response to pain.
● An audiometry test may be performed to determine if there are any hearing-related issues due to the tumour.
● Hormone levels in the blood can be determined by endocrine evaluation.
● Vision-related issues may be detected by using a visual acuity test.
● Various imaging tests like MRI, CT scan, X-ray, etc. may also be used to detect the presence of a tumour.
Surgery: The tumour can be removed surgically, fully, or partly, depending on the size and location of the tumour.
Surgery can reduce the chances of neurological damage if the tumour is present in any
critical part of the brain.
The types of surgery commonly used to treat brain tumours are:
● Extended bifrontal craniotomy
● MRI-guided laser ablation
● Supra orbital craniotomy
● Retrosigmoid craniotomy
● Endonasal endoscopy
● Translabyrinthine craniotomy
● Orbitozygomatic craniotomy
Radiation surgery: Use of precision radiation concentrated on a specific area of tumour cells to shrink and stop their growth. It is an outpatient procedure, painless and non-invasive.
Radiation therapy: This therapy uses high-frequency radiation to kill cancer cells.
Chemotherapy: This therapy involves the use of certain chemotherapeutic drugs which can destroy
Targeted therapy: The drugs used in this therapy are targeted at particular abnormalities within the tumour cell.
If you are looking for leading doctors for brain tumour treatment, you can find them at Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad. It is one of the leading hospitals in Delhi NCR which provides the most effective treatment for brain tumours. Yashoda Hospital has the most skilled neurologists and neurosurgeons who use a multidisciplinary approach to treat diseases like brain tumours with expert precision and care.
Some of the most esteemed doctors or neurosurgeons in Delhi NCR are:
Dr. Atul Gupta is one of the top experts with 29 years of experience in performing various surgeries like spine surgery, brain tumour surgery, etc. He has performed over 2000 surgeries in his thirty-year career.
Dr. Vimal Kumar Agarwal is one of the most experienced neurosurgeons in Delhi NCR. He has an experience of 16 years in the field of neurosurgery and has treated various diseases like vascular disorders and tumours.
Dr. Puneet Malik has more than 10 years of experience practicing neurosurgery. He has
performed a large number of complex brain and spinal cord surgeries.