Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone)- Types, Causes, Signs, Symptoms, Prevention and treatment for Bone Cancer
Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone) is a malignant tumour of bone tissues that leads to the spread of metastasis of the surrounding tissues in malignant form while some remains benign that is confined to the bone tissue only.
Types of Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone)
- OSTEOSARCOMA originate in bone cell more common in children of 5 years to 20 years.
- EWING ’S SARCOMA commonly seen in arms, legs, pelvis and its origin is not clear.
- MULTIPLE MYELOMA seen in late adult and old ages.
- CHONDROSARCOMA originate in cartilage cells and is also seen in late adult or old age.
Stages of Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone)
T for ‘tumour’
N for ‘nodes’
M for ‘metastasis’
GRADING OF CANCER
GRADE 1- Cells differ from normal cells and are well differentiated having mild dysplasia.
GRADE 2- Cells are abnormal and are moderately differentiated.
GRADE 3- Cells are very abnormal and are poorly differentiated.
GRADE 4- Cells are immature and undifferentiated. A cell of origin is difficult to determine.
STAGES OF CANCER
STAGE 0- Carcinoma insitu.
STAGE 1- Tumor limited to the tissue of origin.
Smaller than 8 cms and doesn’t spread to lymph nodes. Grade-0
STAGE 2- limited growth and locally spread. Less than 8 cms and spreads to lymph nodes. High-grade Grade-2 and Grade-3
STAGE 3- Extensive local and regional spread. More than one place on bone and has not spread to lymph nodes with no distant spread. Grade-2 and Grade-3.
STAGE 4- Distant metastasis may or may not spread to lymph nodes. Can reach to lungs. Grade-4.
Risk factors/causes of Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone)
- Previous radiotherapy treatment.
- Paget’s disease of the bone.
- Genetic conditions, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
- Retinoblastoma and umbilical hernia ETC.
Sign and Symptoms of Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone)
- Pain at persistent to the affected site.
- Swelling, lumps, and tenderness.
- Sudden weight loss.
- Weakness and fatigue.
- Tingling sensation.
Diagnostic procedures associated with Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone)
- History taking– asking for expected signs and symptoms of the patient. Like History of pain, fractures, etc.
- Physical examination– tenderness, tingling sensation, swelling etc over the affected site.
- Investigations– (Bone/site Imaging tests)
- Bone Scan
- Computerised tomography (CT) scan
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Positron emission tomography (PET)
- Biopsy– A sample of the tumour tissue is removed for its microscopic examination to study the presence of cancerous changes in the cells by inserting a needle through the skin or into a tumour or by surgery to determine the stage of cancer.
What is the survival rate for bone cancer (sarcoma of bone)?
Survival rates are based on the outcomes of a large number of people who had the disease. The patient’s prognosis determines the survival rate. The 5-year survival rate implies the percentage of people surviving 5 years after the diagnosis of their disease. The overall health of the patient, stage, and size of the tumour can be the other factors that determine survival.
The 5-year survival rates for various circumstances are as mentioned below:
For all cases of bone cancer: about 70%
For chondrosarcomas: about 80%
For localized osteosarcomas and Ewing’s sarcoma: 60-80%
For cancers that spread to distant parts: 15-30%
Early Signs to catch for Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone)
While bone cancer can start in any bone, it is most frequently within an arm or leg bone and can produce several symptoms based on its location and how advanced it is. Signs of bone cancer include:
Pain– The most common sign of bone cancer. The pain may come and go initially, often being worse at night or when the bone is being used. For example, cancer in a leg bone may be more noticeable while walking or running. As cancer grows, the pain will increase and become constant. Swelling– Swelling may not occur until weeks after the pain is first detected. Depending on the location of cancer, it may be possible to feel a lump or mass. The swelling may impact body functions. For instance, cancer in the neck bones can make it difficult to swallow or breathe.
Numbness and tingling– If bone cancer presses on nerves, it can cause numbness, tingling or weakness in areas served by the nerves.
Fatigue and weight loss– Bone cancer that spreads to other organs can cause fatigue and weight loss. If it spreads to the lungs, it may make it hard to breathe.
Bone fractures– Bone cancer can weaken the affected bone. While fractures are not common, they can happen. When a fracture occurs, a person will often feel a sharp pain in an area that was previously just sore.
Prevention and treatment for Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone)
- Complete surgical removal of the carcinogenic tissues.
- Medical procedure- tissue scraping.
- Reconstructive surgeries – Megaprosthetic Replacement, Allo Bone Graft, Vascularized Fibula, Rotationplasty, etc.
- Implants – expandable mega prosthesis.
- Chemotherapeutic drugs regime to be followed.
- Palliative care – to relieve pain and promote end-stage care of cancer patients. • Radiotherapy- targeting cancer-causing tissues by highly active x-rays
- Cryosurgery- killing cancer cells by freezing them in liquid nitrogen.
- Preventions- spreading awareness regarding the condition. Enabling self-care techniques. • Routine follow-ups to oncologist even after the complete recovery from the illness as Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone) has chances of metastasis even after recovery.
Specialists in Yashoda Cancer Institute, Sanjay Nagar, Ghaziabad for Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone).
Dr. A.K. Tyagi (Surgical Oncologist)
Dr. (Brig.) Arvind Kumar Tyagi is the Director of Surgical Oncology at Yashoda Cancer Institute. He possesses more than 30 years of medical experience. He pursued his fellowship and training in surgical oncology from the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. He has had an exceptional career in the armed forces where he served for almost 30 years.
Dr. B.N. Kapur (Medical Oncologist)
Dr. (Maj. Gen.) B.N. Kapur, the Director of Medical Oncology at Yashoda Cancer Institute, specializes in the practice of medical oncology and treatment of blood and blood-related disorders including leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, etc. Having completed his M.B.B.S. in 1983 from Pt. J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur, he joined the M.D. General Medicine program at the same hospital in 1989. Thereafter, he pursued his medical oncology training at the Tata Medical Hospital, Mumbai. Later, he joined Armed Forces Medical College and Command Hospital, Pune as a medical oncologist. He has served in the army for more than 36 years and has been the recipient of many awards in the field of hematology and oncology.
Treatment of Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone) in Delhi NCR
The Department of Orthopedic Oncology at Yashoda Cancer Institute, an exclusive cancer centre with NABH and NABL accreditations and ISO 9001 and ISO 14001, certifications in Delhi NCR, Yashoda Cancer Institute has the right combination of technology and workforce to ensure world-class bone and soft tissue tumour, which makes it the best cancer treatment hospital in Sanjay Nagar Ghaziabad.
Treatment Cost of Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone) in India
For Bone Cancer (Sarcoma of Bone) investigations approximately 40k to 60k INR and for surgical interventions, it ranges from 3.5 lacs to 6 lacs, are the average cost of treatment of bones.
With the advent of newer technology and skills, primary bone cancers can be detected early and cured. The cure rates have improved from 25 % to 70 %. In some cases where cure is not possible due to the delay in detection (Patients who are late with extensive local disease and metastasis), special care is directed towards relieving pain and improving function. Quality of life may thus be improved. The Department of oncology at Yashoda Hospital, Sanjay Nagar Ghaziabad, has a comprehensive cancer care unit that follows a trans-disciplinary and multi-modality approach and provides supportive care through all stages of cancer whenever needed. A full range of treatment options, including standard and experimental treatments with chemotherapy and other biological therapies. At Yashoda, people have access to more treatment options to fight their cancers and experience better outcomes and higher rates of survival.