Anemia : Types, Signs, Symptoms, Diagnostic Procedures, Risk Factors

Anemia : Types, Signs, Symptoms, Diagnostic Procedures, Risk Factors
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Anemia is a condition that develops when there is a deficiency of red blood cells (RBCs) in the body. In this, the blood tissues do not get adequate amount of oxygen due to a smaller number of red blood cells, resulting in a weak and tired body.

The World Health Organization estimates that roughly two billion people may have anemia, making it the most common nutritional disorder in the world.

Why are Red Blood Cells important?

Three types of cells are produced by your bodyred blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Transportation of oxygen from the lungs to rest of the body and carbon dioxide from all parts of the body to the lungs is done by red blood cells.

Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad stands dedicated in sharing needful and essential information you may require about all kinds of health-related issues. Read this blog further to know more about anemia.

Types of anemia

Depending upon the causes of anemia, its types are categorized into:

Iron Deficiency Anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and develops due to deficiency of iron in the body. Iron is the most essential component for the production of red blood cells as bone marrow needs iron for producing hemoglobin for red blood cells. This type of anemia may also be found in pregnant women when they do not take supplements for iron.

Vitamin Deficiency Anemia: Lack of vitamins in the body causes vitamin deficiency anemia. When supply of certain vitamins is not sufficient as required, this type of anemia occurs. Vitamins such as B-12 and folate are needed for the development of red blood cells. Deficit of vitamin B-12 may be caused in some people when their body does not absorb the same.

Aplastic Anemia: This is the most severe type of anemia but it is not so common. It develops when the bone marrow is not able to generate enough red blood cells. Autoimmune disorders, infections, exposure to toxic chemicals and different kinds of medication may be the cause of this type of anemia.

Sickle Cell Anemia: This type of anemia is hereditary in nature. In this, the development of red blood cells by the bone marrow is comparatively lesser. The hemoglobin is distorted making the red blood cells look sickle in shape. Their immense shortage arises with the premature death of these cells.

Hemolytic Anemia: This type of anemia occurs when the red blood cells get destroyed faster than their regeneration. This may be due to certain blood diseases or due to a genetic issue.

Anemia associated with bone marrow disease: Certain diseases such as leukemia and myelofibrosis may affect the ability of the bone marrow to produce blood, causing mild to severe anemia.

Anemia due to blood loss: This type of anemia occurs due to loss of blood in the body that may include heavy bleeding during menstruation, cancer and ulcer. Use of painkillers, such as aspirin that results in inflammation of the stomach lining causing blood loss, may also be a cause.

Anemia can also occur in people having chronic diseases such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, Crohn’s disease and other diseases that cause inflammation. These diseases may obstruct the formation of red blood cells.

Signs & symptoms of anemia

These develop when anemia becomes severe. Doctors at Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad, always advise you to consult us on finding any of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Irregularity in heartbeat
  • Weakness
  • Yellowish or pale skin
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pain in chest
  • Coldness of hands and feet
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue

Diagnostic procedures of anemia

At Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad, doctors are highly trained and have years of experience in diagnosing and treating anemia. With our world class and technologically advanced machines, the best diagnosis and treatment of anemia is done at Yashoda. Doctors may ask about your family history, conduct a physical examination and do certain tests such as:

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)- Doctors may take your blood sample to inspect the level of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood. The level of packed cell volume, known as hematocrit may also be examined. The range of average hematocrit value lies between 40% and 52% amongst men while for women, it is between 35% and 47%.
  • Doctors may also conduct certain tests to examine the size and shape of the red blood cells.

Risk factors of anemia

Some of the risk factors that may increase the probability of having anemia include:

  • Following a diet that lacks in iron and vitamin B-12.
  • Pregnant women, if they do not take multivitamins and iron supplements.
  • Persons above the age of 60 to 65 are also prone to anemia.

Treatment of anemia

Doctors at Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad, are dedicated and well trained in designing the best treatment you may require for treating anemia. They will provide you with all the care and support you need throughout the treatment. Depending on the cause of anemia, doctors may use different treatments. Some of the treatments may include:

  • Iron Deficiency Anemia- In this treatment, doctors may advise you to make changes in your diet to raise the iron levels by recommending you to take iron and Vitamin C supplements. Doctors may also do a surgery to stop the bleeding from the source of blood loss, other than that from menstruation.
  • Vitamin Deficiency Anemia- In this, doctors may ask you to have foods rich in Vitamin B-12 and folic acid or supplements. People with problems in digesting Vitamin B-12 from food may take Vitamin B-12 shots.
  • Anemia of Chronic Disease- This type of anemia does not have any specific treatment but doctors find the underlying disease and try to treat it. In case of a severe condition, blood transfusion or injections of erythropoietin, a synthetic hormone produced by kidneys, may be used to enhance the production of red blood cells.
  • Aplastic Anemia- In this treatment, to produce the required amount of red blood cells, blood transfusions are done. Doctors may also recommend a bone marrow transplant if your bone marrow is not able to develop healthy red blood cells.
  • Anemia associated with bone marrow- Medication, chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation may be done to treat this type of anemia.
  • Hemolytic Anemia- In this treatment, doctors may examine the kind of medications you are taking or may treat an infection that is the cause of this type of anemia.
  • Sickle Cell Anemia- In this treatment, oxygen and pain relievers, both oral as well as intravenous fluids may be recommended. This may help in minimizing pain and prevent any further complications. Blood transfusions, folic acid supplements and antibiotics may also be advised by doctors for better results. Hydroxyurea, a cancer treating drug, may also be used for the treatment of sickle cell anemia.

What happens if anemia is left untreated?

Certain complications may be caused if anemia is left untreated. These complications may include-

  • Severe tiredness and weakness in the body
  • Premature birth of the baby in case of pregnant women
  • Irregularity in heartbeat
  • Anemia of certain types may become life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated properly

How to prevent anemia

All types of anemia cannot be prevented but iron and vitamin deficiency anemia may be prevented if you eat foods rich in iron and vitamins such as Vitamin C and Vitamin B-12. Drinking lots of water and consuming fruits and vegetables may help in preventing iron and vitamin deficiency anemia.

Looking for best hospital, specialists/doctors of anemia in Ghaziabad & Delhi NCR?

Yashoda Hospital & Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad, provides you with the best doctors who are highly trained with all modern and updated methods of treatment. With the presence of world-class machines and technologically advanced infrastructure, doctors at Yashoda are always dedicated in providing you with the best care and treatment.

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Yashoda Hospital

Yashoda Hospital is one of the best super specialty hospitals in Ghaziabad, Noida & Delhi NCR. Yashoda Hospital aims at providing the best healthcare services across the country and not just in Delhi NCR, Ghaziabad & Noida. Being a super speciality hospital, Yashoda Hospital has a number of dedicated specialities under one roof- gastroenterology, general surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology, cardiology, pulmonology & internal medicine, orthopedics, urology and many more.

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